Islamic Mataram Kingdom and Its Role (1577-1681)
- Posted by: Mazfaa
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Coat of arms of the Islamic Mataram Kingdom
The name Mataram comes from the name of a flower, a type of Dahlia flower that is fiery red. There is also the name Mataram which is associated with Sanskrit, Matr which means Mother, so the name Mataram given the same meaning as the English word Motherland which means homeland or Mother Earth. Before 1000 AD this area had developed a civilization abandoned by the Hindu kingdom. In the century 14th as Majapahit reached the peak of glory, the earth of Mataram apparently viewed as less important. there are no signs indicating that the ancient Mataram kings who lived a few centuries earlier are still remembered in Majapahit. Until now, there is no data that may be able to connects Mataram Islam which was founded in the late 16th century with ancient Mataram. At Babad Tanah Jawi story only mentions that mentaok land is a forest thickets and empty inhabitants by king Pajang were gifted to Ki Ageng Milking to be opened in return for his services in defeating Aria Penagsang, enemies of sultan Adiwijaya In the 16th century, the Islamic Mataram kingdom was established which was founded by Ki Ageng Pemanahan in Kotagede. At this time the Mataram kingdom still under the rule of king Pajang. But in the Sutawijaya period, Mataram can eventually become an Independent Kingdom.
Background of the Establishment of the Islamic Mataram Kingdom
In the beginning, Mataram was a territory gifted by the Sultan Adiwijaya to Ki Gede Pemanahan. Sultan Adiwijaya gifted him because of Ki Gede Pemanahan has succeeded in assisting Sultan Adiwijaya in killing Arya Penangsang in Jipang Panolan. Ki Patahanhan, allegedly the ruler of Mataram who obeyed the sultan of Pajang. He began to ascend the throne at his Palace in Kotagede in 1577 AD. In the hands of Ki Gede Pemanahan, Mataram began to show Progress. In 1584 Ki Gede Pemanahan died, hence the effort to advance Mataram was continued by his son, Sutawijaya.
Sutawijaya or known as Panembahan Senapati. After the death of his father, he was inaugurated as an important ruler in Mataram succeeded his Father. He was a valiant man, adept at fighting. So that since he was still the leader of the guard army of king Pajang he has been was given galar by Sultan Adiwijaya, Senapati ing Alaga (warlord).
Senapati has aspirations to raise the kingdom of Mataram as the supreme ruler in Java replacing Pajang. To make it happen his ideal, Senapati took two important steps, first liberating self from display and second to expand the territory of the Mataram kingdom throughout javanese. The conflict between king Pajang and Sutawijaya resulted in victory on Sutawijaya's side. After that, the descendants of Adiwijaya, namely the prince of Benawa who should be the heir of the Sultanate of Pajang, ceding the throne of power kingdom of Pajang to Senapati. Since then Senapati took the title Panembahan in 1586. Sutawijaya succeeded in building Mataram in the year 1586. The territories controlled by the Mataram Sultanate are Mataram, Kedu, and Banyumas. Sutawijaya died in 1601 and he controlled the territory of Java Central and East Java.To the east only Blambangan, Panarukan, and Bali still remains independent. Others are subject to the rule of the Senapati While on the coast of the Java Sea Rembang, Pati, Demak, Pekalongan recognized the rule of Mataram.
After Sutawijaya died, his position as Sultan was replaced by his son, Raden Mas Jolang. He was given the title Sultan Hanyakrawati. She reigned in 1601-1613. During his reign, it often happened resistance from coastal areas, which is one of the reasons why RM Jolang was unable to expand the territory of the Mataram Sultanate. In running the wheels of government, It tends to be development rather than expansion. On the eve of his death, RM Jolang appointed Raden Mas Rangsang as his successor. After being sworn in, RM Rangsang was given the title Sultan Agung Hanyakrakusuma Senopati Ing Ngalaga Ngabdurrahaman. He ruled from 1613-1645. During his reign, the Sultanate Mataram experienced glory.
The Heyday of Islamic Mataram
Raden Mas Rangsang was appointed as the new king using the name Sultan Agung Senopati Ing Ngalaga Ngabdurrahman. If the predecessors took his capital at Kotagede, then Sultan Agung took his capital in Karta. Sultan Agung is known for his expansion politics, so it is not Java only what he wants to control but the archipelago. Enemies of the Sultan The great are not only coastal kingdoms and Hindu kingdoms in Blambang, but also foreign rulers who colonized the archipelago. For example, Portuguese and Dutch. Therefore, it is only natural that since He was appointed as he always took up arms in order to implement tactics Expansion.
As a Muslim, Sultan Agung always obeyed worship and became An example for his people. Every Friday the Sultan agung with his people perform Friday prayers. In 1633 he made a date (new calendar) i.e. Javanese-Islamic calendar. In order to strengthen his position as a leader Islam, Sultan Agung sent envoys to Mecca to return to Mataram with brought the title of Sultan to him and religious experts to be advisers for him in the palace. The title from Mecca is complete is Sultan Abu Muhammad Maulana Matarami.
However, after Sultan Agung died in 1645, the his successor was weak, cruel, and entered into a treaty with the Dutch thus giving the Dutch the opportunity to colonize in the archipelago. It is inflicting various damages here and there. Uprisings and scrambles the power arose to cause divisions among the Mataram people who benefited the Netherlands.
Economic Affairs of Mataram Sultanate
Mataram State remains a fixed agrarian country Prioritizing agriculture. In addition to rice, Mataram also produces coconut sugar and palm sugar. The sugar yield comes from the Sleigh area in Guningkidul. Sugar coconut and palm sugar were exported outside through Tembayat and Wedi.
The basics of maritime life are not owned by Mataram. At essentially Sutawijaya checked whether the Indian sea could be used as the port of the Mataram sultanate which is under construction. However the Java Sea was still ruled by the Chinese from the Demak sultanate during the the rule of the Jin Bun Dynasty. Besides, It turns out that the wave is too big So that the creation of a port on the south coast is impossible. Sultanate Mataram, which is under construction, did not succeed in owning a port and will not be a Maritime country. Mataram Sultanate will only be an agricultural country because the center of its empire is in inland.
Social Life, Religion and the Role of Clerics and Their Participation
During the reign of Sultan Agung, the scholars who were in Mataram sultanate can be divided into three parts. I.e. clerics who are still of noble blood, clerics who worked as tools of bureaucracy, rural clerics which does not become a tool of bureaucracy. As the ruler of Mataram, Sultan Agung highly value the scholars because they have morals and science tall. If you want to make a policy, Sultan Agung always asks for advice and consideration to scholars.
Clerics at the time were concentrating on Islamization to the cultures that are still attached to the hearts of the people of Mataram. Sunan Kalijaga for example, he is a cleric who always tries hard to Islamic teachings are easily accepted by people who have strong belief values to the teachings and doctrines of pre-Islamic culture. Various ways he has travel includes through artworks that have been directed in the community.
Indeed, it is realized that the move of the center of government from the north coast Java to an agrarian hinterland that has been influenced by pre-Islamic culture gave rise to a new color for Islam which was later called Islam Syncretism. Such is the state of Islam since it was centered in Mataram the hand of local culture which later became famous for Islam Kejawen.
Senopati's use of the title Sayidin Panatagama suggests that since its inception Mataram has been declared an Islamic state. King Domiciled as a religious leader and regulator. Mataram accepts religion and the Islamic civilization of the older coastal Islamic kingdoms. Sunan Kalijaga as the famous ruler of the holy mosque in Demak has an influence grew up in Mataram. Not only as a spiritual leader, but also as a adviser in politics. Close ties between Cirebon and Mataram has an important role for the development of Islam in Mataram. The mystical nature of Islam from the Cirebon palace is an element that causes Islam to be easily accepted by the Javanese people in Mataram. The Islam is certainly a Syncretic Islam who unite themselves with Hindu-Buddhist elements.
However, the role of the ulama has been displaced since Mataram was controlled by Amangkurat I. At that time there was de-islamization. Many clerics were killed so that religious life degenerates, while moral decadence adorns the collapse of Mataram's prestige as a result of foreign cultural interference.
Role in the Field of Islamic Culture
The role of activities in the field of culture in the early days of its establishment Mataram, underdeveloped for two reasons. First, the founders of Mataram did not have time to think of things that are spiritual. His attention was more devoted to questions on the opening and utilization of natural resources for economic progress and defense strategy. Tillage and cultivation of barren areas more time-consuming. Secondly, planting Political power turned out to be able to do only with the power of arms. By therefore the entire reign of the first kings of Mataram was spent only in warfare. Thus ki Gede Pemanahan Senapati and Mas Jolang has not had time to develop a culture that is more spiritual in nature.
It was not until the reign of the third king, Sultan Agung that ideas to develop culture can begin. Elements of civilization are taken from the coastal areas of North and East Java that can increase the dignity of the Mataram palace in the field of culture in accordance with its position as the palace of the supreme ruler king throughout Java also in terms of spread the religion of Islam, uniting itself with Hindu-Buddhist elements called syncretic islam.
Political System of Mataram Sultanate
In the political system in the Mataram kingdom of the Senopati period to Susuhunan Amangkurat I experienced drastic ups and downs. Raden Mas Period Jolang then with his son Raden Mas Rangsang. Then Susuhunan Amangkurat I was the opposite of what his predecessor had gone through.
For political systems of an internal nature, especially regarding consolidation of governance, such as bureaucratic systems, replacement systems king, each of them hardly experienced any differences, but in The matter of territorial control, sometimes experiences ups and downs. As in the times of Panembahan Senopati, he was able to raise the dignity of Mataram to more strata high, that is, making Mataram stand alone (which was originally an area subordinates of the Kingdom of Pajang). When the control of the leadership passes into the hands of the milkhunan Amangkurat 1 The dignity of Mataram became degenerate again, the fiefdom began to shrunk because of its connection to the Dutch colonials.
The validity of the position and power of the king of mataram, obtained because inheritance. Traditionally the successors of the kings were designated sons of men of Concubine wives were also commonly crowned as successors to the king. If of the two don't get a son, then.uncle or old brother of his father could be a stand-in.
Regarding its external political system, among the rulers of Mataram There can be striking differences in implementing the system to deal with Western penetration. Some are compromising and some are anti- starch at all. At the time of the senopati panembahan, the business was not yet Found. This is because even though at that time the Europeans were already in Nusantara, political concentration is being devoted to consolidation and control of the surrounding kingdoms. While during the Raden Mas period Jolang, the presence of the Dutch was well received at the end of his rule. Different things with the next ruler of Mataram, Sultan Agung, he was among the rulers who antipathic on the company. Various efforts have been deployed to harass the existence and stemming its increasingly strong penetration in the archipelago. Two times after his expansion, military forces, he sent to Batavia to hit the VOC retreated, in 1628 and 1629, respectively, although eventually obtaining failures.
The Decline of Islamic Mataram
After Sultan Agung died, Mataram was then ruled by the king who was pro with the company i.e. Susuhunan Amangkurat I. he ruled in the year 1645-1677. As the new ruler of Mataram, Sultan Amangkurat I made policies, which are controfersial, i.e., first, no longer respect The scholars even tried to get rid of it. In his time thousands of Martyrdom scholars assassinated Sultan Amangkuran I. secondly, abolished the religious institutions that existed in Sultanates, such as abolishing the Sharia Court that had been established by His father. Third, limiting the development of Islam and prohibiting religious life interfering in the problems of the sultanate. Fourth, build cooperation with the colonists The Dutch who became his father's mortal enemy.
Amangkurat I's way of ruling that doesn't pay attention Those values of wisdom have aroused public outrage. Under the condition of like this, Raden Kajoran, a noble scholar who lives in the countryside, put up resistance. He composed the strength of the students and the people rural. Raden Kajoran has the support of Raden Anom, the Sultan's son Amangkurat I and Trunojoyo nobles from Madura. The strength of the bush is strong when Karaeng Galesong nobleman from Gowa. But the next development, Duke Anom committed treason. He quit the alliance, because he had been pardoned by his father. In 1677, the Raden Kajoran alliance successfully besieged the center reign of Amangkurat I in Pleret. Meanwhile, Amangkurat I and his son managed to escape to Batavia and turned to the Dutch for help. Deep traveling to Batavia, Amangkurat I fell ill and died.
Before Amangkurat I died, he had already appointed Duke of Anom as the new Sultan of Mataram. After being sworn in, Duke Anom was given the title Sultan Amangkurat II he immediately continued his cooperation with the Dutch to reclaimed the throne of Mataram in the treaty in Jepara where the Dutch wanted The eastern region of Karawang and wages in the form of money. After the Jepara agreement signed, Amangkurat II and the Dutch attacked Mataram and successfully repelled Raden Kajoran's alliance. Thus, the Sultan amangkurat II managed to reclaim the throne of Mataram.
Although Sultan Amangkurat II occupied Mataram and returned the function of the cleric, but the issue of Mataram has not yet been resolved.Since 1743 Mataram it only has the areas of Begelen, Kedu, Jogjakarta, Surakarta. Tragically again, Mataram split into two kingdoms, according to the Giyanti treaty in 1755. The two kingdoms are the Surakarta Kingdom with his king Susuhunan (Pakubuwono III) and Yogyakarta with his king Prince Mangkubumi (Hamengku Buwono I). Furthermore, in 1757, the Kingdom of Surakarta it is further divided into two, namely, the territory that Pakubuwono III colonized and the territory which was peddled by Mangkunegara I. Likewise in 1813 by the British, Yogyakarta is divided into two, namely the Sultanate which is colonized by Sultan Hamengku Buwono III and the Duchy of Pakualaman led by Bendara Prince Natakusuma or known as Prince Pakualam I.
In the beginning, Mataram was a territory gifted by the Sultan Adiwijaya to Ki Gede Pemanahan for helping him kill Arya Adiwijaya's enemy. Furthermore, the throne changed to his son's office which named Sutawijaya or Panembahan Senopati from his efforts the Sultanate Mataram was able to break away from Pajang's rule. After Sutawijaya died Raden Mas Jolang in place of his father. During his reign Much is devoted in the field of development. It was only during the time of Sultan Agung or known as Raden Mas Rangsang, the Mataram sultanate was at the peak of glory. Starting from the application of the politics of its expansion and the development of islamic teachings. Deep in the economic field, the Mataram sultanate is not very developed. Mataram is an Agrarian country whose main income is in agriculture only. Meanwhile, in the field of traditional culture or Hindu-Buddhist elements, it is integrated with the teachings of Islam are commonly called Islam. But carved glory by Sultan Agung ended after Susuhunan Amangkurat I ascended the throne. It is a ruthless and authoritarian figure of the leader. On the interference of the colonial authorities The Dutch, finally the Mataram Sultanate was divided. As for the factors that causing the Collapse of the Mataram kingdom : 1. Dutch colonial entry into Archipelago 2. Dispute between heirs to the throne of Mataram 3. The split of Mataram into 2 kingdoms, under the treaty of Giyanti.