How to Perform eclipse Prayers
- Posted by: Mazfaa
- Category: Uncategorized
Soon in this world there will be a special event, namely a total solar eclipse, especially for the country itself. Today a total solar eclipse is seen as a natural phenomenon of the sun being covered by the moon so that it darkens. But for Indonesians in ancient times, this total solar eclipse was considered a terrifying event that gave rise to myths and superstitions. Whereas in Islam itself, we are used to perform khusuf prayers and other sunnahs.
How do I perform the eclipse prayer?
Here's the complete guide.
Those Who Witness the Eclipse Should Perform the Eclipse Prayer
If a person witnesses an eclipse, let him perform the eclipse prayer as the ordinance we will later pronounce, God willing.
Then what is the law of eclipse prayer? The strongest opinion, for anyone who sees the eclipse with the naked eye, then he is obliged to perform the eclipse prayer.
The postulate is the prophet's word sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam,
"If you see the eclipse (sun or moon) , then be hasty to perform the prayers." 2
Because the hadiths that tell about the eclipse prayer contain the word command (if you see the eclipse, pray: this sentence contains the command). In fact, according to the ushul fiqih method, the law of origin of the order is mandatory. It is this opinion that declares mandatory that was chosen by Asy Syaukani, Shidiq Hasan Khoon, and Shaikh Al Albani rahimahumullah.
Note: If an area does not see an eclipse, then there is no need to perform eclipse prayers. Because this eclipse prayer is required for anyone who sees it as mentioned in the hadith above.
The Time of the Eclipse Prayer
The timing of the eclipse prayer is to start when the eclipse appears until the eclipse is gone.
From Al Mughiroh ibn Syu'bah, the Messenger of Allaah sallallahu 'alaihi wasallam said,
"The sun and the moon are two signs among the signs of God's dominion. Both eclipses do not occur due to the death or birth of a person. If you see both, pray to Allah, and then pray until the eclipse is gone (over)." 3
Eclipse prayers may also be performed at forbidden times for prayer. So, if the eclipse appears after Ashar, even though that time is a forbidden time for prayer, then the eclipse prayer can still be performed. The postulate is:
"If you see both solar and lunar eclipses, make prayers." 4 In this hadith is not limited in time. Whenever you see an eclipse including a forbidden time for prayer, the eclipse prayer is still held.
Things Recommended When a First Eclipse Occurs: multiply dhikr, istighfar, takbir, almsgiving and other forms of obedience.
From 'Aisyah radhiyallahu 'anha, the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam said,
"Verily the sun and the moon are two signs among the signs of the dominion of God. This eclipse does not occur because of the death of a person or the birth of a person. If you see this, pray to Allah, pray, pray and give alms." 5
Second: go out to do eclipse prayers in congregations in mosques.
One of the postulates that shows this is as in the hadith of 'Aisyah that the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam drove the vehicle in the morning and then there was an eclipse. Then the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam passed by his wife's room (which is close to the mosque), then he stood up and performed prayers. 6 In another account it is said that the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam came to his place of prayer (i.e. his mosque) which he used to pray there. 7
Ibn Hajar said, "In accordance with the teachings of the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam is to do eclipse prayers in the mosque. If this were not the case, of course, the prayer would have been more appropriately carried out in the field so that it would be easier to see the end of the eclipse later." 8
Then is working with jama'ah a requirement for eclipse prayers? Note the following interesting explanation.
Shaikh Muhammad bin Sholeh Al Utsaimin said, "The prayer of the eclipse in jama'ah is not a condition. If a person is at home, he may also perform eclipse prayers at home. The postulate of this is the words of the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam,
"If you see the eclipse, then pray". 9
In this hadith, he sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam does not say, "(If you see it), pray you in the mosque." Therefore, this shows that the eclipse prayer is ordered to be performed even if one performs the prayer alone. However, there is no doubt that performing the prayer in congregation is of course more primary (afdhol). It is even more important if the prayer is performed in the mosque because the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam performed the prayer in the mosque and invited the companions to perform it in the mosque. Remember, with the large number of pilgrims will add more specificity. And the large number of pilgrims is also the cause of the worship (granted) do'a." 10
Third: women may also pray eclipses with men
From Asma' binti Abi Bakr, he said,
"I went to Aisyah radhiyallahu 'anha -wife of the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam- when there was a solar eclipse. At that time, people were enforcing prayers. When Aisyah stood up to pray, I asked: "Why these people?" Aisyah gestured her hand to the sky as she said, "Subhanallah (Most Holy Allah)". I asked: "Sign (eclipse)?" Aisyah then motioned to say yes." 11th
Bukhari brings this hadith to the chapter:
"Women's prayers are with men when there is a solar eclipse."
Ibn Hajar says,
"The title of this chapter is as a refutation to people who forbid women not to pray with men, they are only allowed to pray alone." 12
In conclusion, women can participate in eclipse prayers with men in mosques. However, if it is feared that the woman's exit will bring slander (flirting with men), then they should pray alone at home. 13
Fourth: calling for jama'ah with the call 'ash sholatu jaami'ah' and there is no adhan or iqomah.
Of 'Aisyah radhiyallahu 'anha, he says,
"Aisyah radhiyallahu 'anha said that in the time of the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam there was a solar eclipse. He then sent someone to call the jama'ah with: 'ASH SHALATU JAMI'AH' (let's do the congregational prayer). People then gathered. The Prophet then went forward and went on to speak. He did four ruku' and four prostrations in two raka'at." 14 In this hadith it is not commanded to proclaim the call to prayer and iqomah. So, adhan and iqomah are not in the eclipse prayer.
Fifth: preaching after the eclipse prayer
It was destroyed after the eclipse prayer to preach, as chosen by Imam Asy Shafi'i, Ishaq, and many companions15. It is based on the hadith:
عَنْ عَائِشةَ رَضي الله عَنْهَا قَالَتْ: خَسَفَتِ الشمسُ عَلَى عَهدِ رَسُول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم. فَقَامَ فَصَلَّى رَسُولُ الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بالنَّاس فَأطَالَ القِيَام، ثُمَّ رَكَعَ فَأطَالَ الرُّكُوعَ، ثُمَّ قَامَ فَأطَالَ القيَامَ وَهو دُونَ القِيَام الأوَّلِ، ثم رَكَعَ فَأطَالَ الرُّكوعَ وهُوَ دُونَ الرُّكُوعِ الأوَّلِ، ثُم سَجَدَ فَأطَالَ السُّجُودَ، ثم فَعَلَ في الركعَةِ الأخْرَى مِثْل مَا فَعَل في الركْعَةِ الأولى، ثُمَّ انصرَفَ وَقَدْ انجَلتِ الشَّمْسُ، فَخَطبَ الناسَ فَحَمِدَ الله وأثنَى عَليهِ ثم قالَ:
” إن الشَّمس و القَمَر آيتانِ مِنْ آيَاتِ الله لاَ تنْخَسِفَانِ لِمَوتِ أحد. وَلاَ لِحَيَاتِهِ. فَإذَا رَأيتمْ ذلك فَادعُوا الله وَكبروا وَصَلُّوا وَتَصَدَّ قوا”.
From Aisyah, he said that a solar eclipse had occurred during the time of the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam. Then he sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam got up and followed the man and he extended his feet. He ruku' and extended his ruku'. Then he stood up again and extended the stand but was shorter than the previous stand. Then he ruku' came back and extended the ruku' but it was shorter than the previous ruku'. Then he bowed down and extended the prostration. In the next raka'at, he worked on it like the first raka'at. Then he left (after doing the prayer earlier), while the sun was visible.
After that he preached before the crowd, he praised and flattered God, then said,
"Verily the sun and the moon are two signs among the signs of the dominion of God. This eclipse does not occur because of the death of a person or the birth of a person. If you see this, pray to Allah, pray, pray and give alms."
The Prophet further said,
"O people of Muhammad, by Allah, no one is more jealous than Allah because there is a servant of both male and female adultery. O People of Muhammad, by Allah, if you know what I know, you will undoubtedly laugh a little and cry a lot." 16
The sermon performed is once as the 'ied prayer, not twice the sermon. This is the correct opinion as chosen by Imam Asy Shafi'i. 17
Eclipse Prayer Ordinances
The eclipse prayer is performed as many as two raka'at and this is based on the agreement of the scholars. However, scholars are at odds over the ordinance.
Some say that the eclipse prayer is performed as a regular sunnah prayer, with two raka'at and each raka'at there is once ruku', twice prostration. There are also those who argue that the eclipse prayer is performed with two raka'at and each raka'at there are two ruku', twice prostration. It is this latter opinion that is stronger as voted for by the majority of scholars. 18
This is based on the unequivocal hadiths that we have mentioned:
"Aisyah radhiyallahu 'anha said that in the time of the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam there was a solar eclipse. He then sent someone to call 'ASH SHALATU JAMI'AH' (let's do the congregational prayers). People then gathered. The Prophet then went forward and went on to speak. He did four ruku' and four prostrations in two raka'at." 19th
"Aisyah said that a solar eclipse once occurred during the time of the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam. Then he sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam got up and followed the man and he extended his feet. He ruku' and extended his ruku'. Then he stood up again and extended the stand but was shorter than the previous stand. Then he ruku' came back and extended the ruku' but it was shorter than the previous ruku'. Then he bowed down and extended the prostration. In the next raka'at he worked on it like the first raka'at. Then he left (after doing the prayer), while the sun was visible." 20
In summary, the eclipse prayer procedure -just like the usual prayer and the reading is the same-, the order is as follows.
 Intentions in the heart and not lafadzkan because reciting intentions include matters for which there is no guidance from our Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam and he sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam also never taught him lafadz intention on certain prayers to his companions.
 Takbiratul ihram i.e. takbir as usual prayer.
 Read the do'a istiftah and berta'awudz, then read the letter of Al Fatihah and read a long letter (such as the letter of Al Baqarah) while being peddled (hardened in voice, not soft) as found in the hadith of Aisyah:
"The Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam offered his recitation during the eclipse prayer." (HR. Bukhari no. 1065 and Muslim no. 901)
 Then ruku' while lengthening it.
 Then rose from the ruku' (i'tidal) while chanting 'SAMI'ALLAHU LIMAN HAMIDAH, RABBANA WA LAKAL HAMD'
 After this i'tidal did not immediately bow down, but continued by reading Al Fatihah's letter and a long letter. The stand of this second one is shorter than the first.
 Then ruku' back (second ruku' ) which is shorter in length than the previous ruku'.
 Then rose from the ruku' (i'tidal).
 Then bow down which is as long as ruku', then sit between two prostrations then bow down again.
 Then rise from prostration and then work on the second raka'at as the first raka'at only that the readings and movements are shorter than before.
 After that, the priest delivered a sermon to the pilgrims containing the advice to pray, pray, beristighfar, almsgiving, and free slaves. 21
Brother, be afraid of this natural phenomenon. The right attitude when this eclipse phenomenon is to be afraid, worried that there will be a doomsday. It is not the custom of people like the custom of people today who just want to witness the eclipse event by making an album of memories of the phenomenon, without wanting to heed the guidance and invitation of the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam at that time. Who knew this event was a sign of the coming of disaster or adzab, or a sign of the approaching doomsday. Look at what our Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam did:
Abu Musa Al Asy'ari radhiyallahu 'anhu said, "There was a solar eclipse during the time of the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam. The Prophet then stood afraid because he was worried that the doomsday would happen, so he went to the mosque and then he did the prayers by standing, ruku' and prostration for a long time. I've never seen him do such a prayer."
The Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam then said, "Indeed, these are the signs of God's dominion that He has shown. The eclipse did not occur because of the death or life of a person. But God made it so to frighten His servants. If you see a portion of the eclipse, then be anxious to pray, pray and ask God for mercy." 22
An Nawawi rahimahullah explained the meaning of why the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam was afraid, worried about the doomsday. He explained for several reasons, including:
The eclipse is a sign that appears before the signs of the apocalypse such as the rising of the sun from the west or the exit of the Antichrist. Or maybe the eclipse is partly a sign of the apocalypse. 23
A believer should fear God, worried about being stricken by His adzab. The Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam alone was very afraid at the time, even though we all know together that he sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam was the most beloved servant of Allah. Then why do we just go through this kind of phenomenon with casual feelings, maybe only filled with useless and futile things, maybe even filled with doing evil. Na'udzu billahi min dzalik.
Thus our brief explanation of the eclipse prayer . May be useful.