Tafsir Surat An Nashr
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Tafsir Surat An Nashr
إِذَا جَاءَ نَصْرُ اللَّهِ وَالْفَتْحُ (1) وَرَأَيْتَ النَّاسَ يَدْخُلُونَ فِي دِينِ اللَّهِ أَفْوَاجًا (2) فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَاسْتَغْفِرْهُ إِنَّهُ كَانَ تَوَّابًا (3)
"When there has come God's help and victory, and you See men convert to the religion of God in droves, Then pray by praising your Lord and begging Him for mercy. Verily He is the Most Recedent" (An Nashr 1-3)
Surat an-Nashr, also known as surat at-Taudi'. The three-verse letter was agreed upon by the scholars as Madaniyyah (the letter that came down after the hijra of the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam to Medina) – although it came down in Mecca- and included the last letter handed down.
First Verse :
إِذَا جَاءَ نَصْرُ اللَّهِ وَالْفَتْحُ
(When God's help and victory have come.)
First Lesson : that victory over the enemy is solely due to the gift of God, not because of the large number of troops, or the completeness of the weaponry or the maturation of strategy or the sophistication of technology, or the intelligence of the leader. Allah subhanahu ta'ala said :
وَمَا النَّصْرُ إِلَّا مِنْ عِنْدِ اللَّهِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَكِيمِ
" It is not the victory, except it comes from Allah the Mighty and All-Wise " ( Qs Ali Imran : 126 )
So are His words:
وَمَا النَّصْرُ إِلا مِنْ عِنْدِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
" No victory is that victory, except it comes from God. Indeed, Allah is Mighty and All-Wise. " ( Qs. Al Anfal : 10)
Therefore, we are obliged to ask Allah subhanahu wata'ala only, not to any other than Him. This is in accordance with the word of God:
إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ
" It is only to You that we worship and it is only to You that we ask for help" ( Qs. al-Fatihah: 4)
This is also in accordance with the hadith of Ibn Abbas radhiallahu 'anhuma :
عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ كُنْتُ خَلْفَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَوْمًا فَقَالَ يَا غُلَامُ إِنِّي أُعَلِّمُكَ كَلِمَاتٍ احْفَظْ اللَّهَ يَحْفَظْكَ احْفَظْ اللَّهَ تَجِدْهُ تُجَاهَكَ إِذَا سَأَلْتَ فَاسْأَلْ اللَّهَ وَإِذَا اسْتَعَنْتَ فَاسْتَعِنْ بِاللَّهِ وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ الْأُمَّةَ لَوْ اجْتَمَعَتْ عَلَى أَنْ يَنْفَعُوكَ بِشَيْءٍ لَمْ يَنْفَعُوكَ إِلَّا بِشَيْءٍ قَدْ كَتَبَهُ اللَّهُ لَكَ وَلَوْ اجْتَمَعُوا عَلَى أَنْ يَضُرُّوكَ بِشَيْءٍ لَمْ يَضُرُّوكَ إِلَّا بِشَيْءٍ قَدْ كَتَبَهُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ رُفِعَتْ الْأَقْلَامُ وَجَفَّتْ الصُّحُفُ. قَالَ هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ
" From Ibn Abbas said: I was behind the Messenger of Allaah sallallahu 'alaihi wa salam one day, he said: "O son, verily I will teach you a few sentences; take care of Allah undoubtedly He takes care of you, take care of Allah you will undoubtedly meet Him before you, if you ask, ask Allah and if you ask for help, ask Allah for help, know that if the ummah unites to give you benefits, they will not benefit you anything other than what God has destined for you and if they unite to harm you, they will not harm you at all except what God has destined for you, The pens have been lifted and the sheets have dried. (meaning fate has been set) " ( HR Tirmidzi, he said : This hadith hasan shahih ) .
Second Lesson : that our success in this world, in any field, is solely due to the gift of God, not because of our intelligence, or our earnestness. Therefore, the successful person must not forget himself and be arrogant, but must return all praise to Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala by saying : " al-Hamdulillah… all praise belongs to God, it is He who allows me to succeed."
Lesson Three : The conquest of the city of Mecca is referred to as an opening, not a massacre, because the city of Mecca was conquered by peaceful means, there was no war in it and there was no significant bloodshed.
This shows that Islam is not spread by sword and violence, as Westerners allege, but Islam is spread with awareness and peace. The event of the opening of the city of Mecca became a vivid proof in this matter. How the Messenger of Allaah sallallahu alaihi wassalam deliberately secretly cautiously set out with his entire army of 10,000 personnel to the city of Mecca at night, when during the day they were in the dark, so as not to be noticed by anyone. It was all done so that there would be no physical clashes and bloodshed in the holy city of Mecca.
When he and his army entered the city of Mecca without any meaningful resistance from the inhabitants of Mecca, he forgave them. So the people of Mecca converted to Islam with great awareness.
Fourth Lesson : The opening of the city of Mecca is a very important historical event, because since then Islam has become strong and recognized by the international world. People flocked to Islam and recognized the truth and greatness of Islam. Therefore, when God mentions that God's help has come, then God repeats it again by mentioning the opening of Mecca as one of God's great forms of help. " If god's help comes and the opening of the city of Mecca "
Lesson Five: God's help comes in several forms, including:
ü Physical victory, that is, the muslims won the war over the infidels. This includes the opening of the city of Mecca mentioned in this verse.
ü The victory of the hujjah when in dialogue with the infidels, the Muslims were able to break the hujjah of the infidels, so that the truth of Islam became clearer.
ü The victory of aqidah tauhid over aqidah shirk, as happened to the people who were put in the trenches because they retained their aqidah. They choose death by still holding the aqidah of tawhid rather than living with shirk. So Allah enshrined the victory in sura al-Buruj. If it is not Allah's victory or help, then Allah does not praise their attitude and does not perpetuate it in the Qur'an.
Second Verse :
وَرَأَيْتَ النَّاسَ يَدْخُلُونَ فِي دِينِ اللَّهِ أَفْوَاجًا
( And you see people flocking to Islam)
First Lesson: God showed His power to His prophet that He could defeat His enemies. Allah showed His prophet how people who used to oppose his proselytizing and tried to extinguish his teachings, now they are flocking to Islam. Of course, such a scene is very encouraging for the Messenger of Allah who has always wanted this human being to get hidayah from Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala.
Second Lesson : When the city of Mecca was successfully curated by the Muslims, the Arabs said: "If Muhammad succeeded in defeating the inhabitants of the holy city (Mecca), when in the past they were protected by Allah from the army of Elephants, then there is no power for you (to restrain it)." So they embraced Islam in droves.
Third Lesson : the event of the entry of man into the teachings of Islam in droves is corroborated by the hadith of Amr bin Salamah, he said:
وَكَانَتْ الْعَرَبُ تَلَوَّمُ بِإِسْلَامِهِمْ الْفَتْحَ فَيَقُولُونَ اتْرُكُوهُ وَقَوْمَهُ فَإِنَّهُ إِنْ ظَهَرَ عَلَيْهِمْ فَهُوَ نَبِيٌّ صَادِقٌ فَلَمَا كَانَتْ وَقْعَةُ أَهْلِ الْفَتْحِ بَادَرَ كُلُّ قَوْمٍ بِإِسْلَامِهِمْ وَبَدَرَ أَبِي قَوْمِي بِإِسْلَامِهِمْ
" (Formerly) the Arabs waited for al Fathu (the conquest of the city of Mecca) to embrace Islam. They said: "Let him (the Messenger of Allah) and his people. If he wins over them, then he is indeed an honest prophet". When there had been a conquest of the city of Mecca, every people immediately embraced Islam, and my father moved the Islam of his people. ( HR Bukhari )
Lesson Four: Some people do not want to believe in new things so as to get strong evidence against what they believe. The opening of the city of Mecca is strong evidence that Islam is the true religion, and that Muhammad is truly a messenger of Allah. So since the opening of the city of Mecca, the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula have flocked to Islam.
فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَاسْتَغْفِرْهُ إِنَّهُ كَانَ تَوَّابًا
(Then pray by praising your Rabb and begging Him for mercy. Verily He is All-Accepting of Torah)
First Lesson: we are commanded to praise Allah and have faith when we succeed in opening a city and conquering the enemy. This praise and istighfar is realized by performing sunnah prayers.
The Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam himself performed the eight raka'at prayers on the day of the conquest of the city of Mecca. He said greetings to every two raka'at on the day of the conquest of the city of Mecca. Similarly Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqqash radhiyallahu anhu did on the day of the conquest of the city of Madain which was the capital of the Persian Empire.
Second Lesson : Some scholars say that the prayer that the Prophet did sallallahu alaihi wa sallam during the opening of the city of Mecca was the Dhuha prayer, because it was done at the time of Dhuha and not the prayer because of victory. They say that Dhuha prayers are performed when there are certain events, such as when coming from traveling or when visiting his brother's house and others.
Third Lesson : Surat an-Nashr and the opening of the city of Mecca is a sign of the beginning of the end of the task of the prophet Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wa sallam as a messenger of Allah as well as a sign of the imminence of his death and death. This is what Umar ibn Khattab and Ibn Abbas radhiyallahu 'anhuma understood.
It is narrated from Ibn Abbas radhiyallahu anhu that he said :
"Umar used to include myself with the old men who took part in the Badr war. It seems that some of them don't like my presence less. Some say: "Why did this (kid) come in with us. Even though we also have children like him? Umar replied,"Truly, you know (who he is)," so one day Umar radiallahu'anhu called me and put me with them. I don't think the reason he invited me, other than to show them my capacity.
He said (to the people): "What do you think of the word of God: إِذَا جَاءَ نَصْرُ اللَّهِ وَالْفَتْحُ ? They replied, "God commanded us to praise and ask Him for forgiveness, when God's help has arrived and has conquered (the areas) for us." Some people are silent (not answering). Then 'Umar radhiallahu'anhu turned to me: "Is that your opinion, O Ibn Abbas?" I (Ibn 'Abbas radhiallahu'anhu ) replied, "No!".
Umar asked, "What do you think?" I (Ibn 'Abbas radhiallahu'anhu ) replied,"It is (the news of) the death of the Messenger of Allah shollallahu 'alaihi wa sallam . Allah Ta'ala told him. Allah Ta'ala said : إذَا جَاءَ نَصْرُ اللَّهِ وَالْفَتْحُIn such circumstances there is a sign of your death, then pray and ask Him for forgiveness, verily He is All-Accepting of torah."
Umar radhiallahu'anhu commented: "There is nothing I know from it (the letter), except what you say". ( HR Bukhari )
Fourth Lesson : that this letter of an-Nashr includes the last letter that came down to the prophet Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wa sallam. From Ubaidillah bin Abdillah bin Utbah, that he said :
عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ قَالَ قَالَ لِي ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ تَعْلَمُ ( وفي لفظ: تَدْرِي ) آخِرَ سُورَةٍ نَزَلَتْ مِنْ الْقُرْآنِ نَزَلَتْ جَمِيعًا قُلْتُ : نَعَمْ . إِذَا جَاءَ نَصْرُ اللَّهِ وَالْفَتْحُ قَالَ صَدَقْتَ
From 'Ubaidillah ibn 'Abdillah ibn 'Utbah, he said : Ibn 'Abbas radhiallahu'anhu asked me: "You know the last letter of the Qur'an that came down in its entirety?" He replied: "Yes, idza ja'a nashrullahi wal fath". He replied: "You are right" ( HR Muslim )
Fifth Lesson : Since the descent of this verse, when performing prayers, especially in the state of ruku' and prostration, the Messenger of Allah always reads : " Subhanaka Rabbana wa bihamdika Allahummaghfirli " (Most Holy Thou, our Rabb and praise to You, O Allah forgive me)".
In the annals of Aisyah radhiyallahu 'anha , that he said :
عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ مَا صَلَّى النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ صَلَاةً بَعْدَ أَنْ نَزَلَتْ عَلَيْهِ إِذَا جَاءَ نَصْرُ اللَّهِ وَالْفَتْحُ إِلَّا يَقُولُ فِيهَا سُبْحَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَبِحَمْدِكَ اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي
From 'Aisyah radhiyallahu'anha , he said: "It is not the Messenger of Allaah sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam to do the prayers after the descent of this letter, except to read Subhanaka Rabbana wa bihamdika Allahummaghfirli (Most Holy Rabb of ours and praise to Thee, O Allah have mercy on me)". ( HR Bukhari and Muslims )
Lesson Five: Why when we get victory and success, we are commanded to sanctify the name of God while praising the greatness of God and praying for forgiveness for all our sins? Because on the way to victory and success, we often make mistakes, both intentional and unintentional. Likewise, we in charity and worship in search of God's blessings are never perfect, there must be flaws and oversights. Therefore we are aware of all these shortcomings.
Said Sheikh as-Sa'di in his interpretation ( 1/92 )
أمر تعالى عند الفراغ منها باستغفاره والإكثار من ذكره، فالاستغفار للخلل الواقع من العبد، في أداء عبادته وتقصيره فيها، وذكر الله شكر الله على إنعامه عليه بالتوفيق لهذه العبادة العظيمة والمنة الجسيمة. وهكذا ينبغي للعبد، كلما فرغ من عبادة، أن يستغفر الله عن التقصير، ويشكره على التوفيق
Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala commands when finished performing worship (wukuf di mina or mabit di muzdalifah) to beristighfar and multiply dhikr. As for istighfar to make up for the shortcomings that servants do when worshiping Him and when not doing it to the fullest. As for thinking, it is a form of gratitude to Him for the blessings of taufik to be able to carry out this very great worship. And this is how a servant should do, every time a service is completed, he should be grateful for the shortcomings and grateful for the knowledge from God. “
Sixth Lesson: In addition to gaining victory over our enemies, this command of consecration, ordained and beristighfar is also intended when we complete other services, such as hajj and prayer;
(1) When completing the hajj, especially after wukuf in Arafah or Mabit in Muzdalifah. God said:
ثمَّ أَفِيضُوا مِنْ حَيْثُ أَفَاضَ النَّاسُ وَاسْتَغْفِرُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُمْ مَنَاسِكَكُمْ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَذِكْرِكُمْ آبَاءَكُمْ أَوْ أَشَدَّ ذِكْرًا
" Then depart ye from the place of departure of the multitudes (Arafah) and beg Allah for mercy; indeed, Allah is all-forgiving and all-merciful. When you have completed your pilgrimage, then think (by mentioning) Allah, as you mentioned (boasting) your ancestors, or (even) think more than that." ( Qs.al-Baqarah : 199-200 )
(2) When we finish the prayer service, we are commanded to pray and pray. as in the hadith Tsauban radhiyallahu'anhu he says :
كَانَ رَسولُ اللهِ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – إِذَا انْصَرَفَ مِنْ صَلاَتِهِ اسْتَغْفَرَ ثَلاثَاً
"The Messenger of Allaah sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam if finished performing the beristighfar prayer three times." (HR. Muslim, 591)
* Excerpted from Dr.'s writings. Ahmad Zain An Najah, MA